Алберт Абрахам Мајкелсон

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Алберт Абрахам Мајкелсон
Albert Abraham Michelson2.jpg
Роден декември 19, 1852(1852-12-19)
Стрело, Полска
Починал мај 9, 1931(1931-05-09) (воз. 78 г.)
Пасадена, Калифорнија, САД
Националност САД Американец
Полиња Физика
Установи Кејски западен резервен универзитет
Кларков универзитет
Чикашки универзитет
Образование Американска морнарска академија
Берлински универзитет
Докторски ментор Херман фон Хелмхолц
Докторанди Роберт Миликан
Познат по Брзина на светлината
Мајкелсон–Морлиев експеримент
Поважни награди Матеучиев медал (1903)
Нобелова награда за физика (1907)
Коплиев медал (1907)
Елиот Кресонов медал (1912)
Хенри Драперов медал (1916)
Албертов медал (1920)
Franklin Medal (1923)
Дуделов медал и награда (1929)
Сопружник Маргарет Хемингвеј (1877–1898; разведени; 3 деца)
Една Стентон (1899–1931; негава смрт; 3 деца)
Потпис

Алберт Абрахам Мајклсон (англиски: Albert Abraham Michelson 19 декември 18529 мај 1931) е американски физичар познат по неговата работа за мерење на брзината на светлината посебно за Мајклсон-Морли експериментот.Во 1907 ја добил Нобеловата Награда по Физика. Тој станал првиот Американец кој ја примил Нобеловата награда за наука.

Биографија[уреди | уреди извор]

Мајклсон бил роден во Strzelno, Province of Posen во Prussian Partition (понекогаш наречена Пруската Полска),претходниоте територии на Полско-Литванскиот Комонвелт (сега и претходно - Полска) во Еврејска фамилија.[1] Се преселил во САД со своите родители во 1855, на возраст од 2 години.Пораснал во рударските градови Murphy's Camp, Калифорнија и Virginia City, Nevada, каде неговиот татко бил трговец. Неговата фамилија била еврејска од раѓање но нерелигиозна, и самиот Мајклсон бил доживотен агностик.[2][3][4] Ги поминал своите училишни години во Сан Франциско во домот на неговата тетка ,Хенриета Леви која била мајката на авторката Harriet Lane Levy.[5]

Претседателот Ulysses S. Grant го наградил Мајклсон со специјално именување во U.S. Naval Academy во 1869.[6] За време на неговите четири години како midshipman во Академијата, Мајклсон брилирал во optics, топлина, climatology и цртање. По матурирањето во 1873 и две години на мора,тој се вратил во Поморската Академија во 1875 да стане инструктор по physics и chemistry до 1879. Во 1879, тој бил испратен во Наутичката Алманах Канцеларија, Вашингтон(дел од United States Naval Observatory[7][8][9]), да работи со Simon Newcomb. Во наредната година тој добил отсуство од работа да ги продолжи своите студии во Европа. Тој ги посетил Универзитетите на Berlin и Heidelberg, и Collège de France и École Polytechnique во Париз.

Во 1877, се венчал со Маргарет Хемингвеј, ќерка на богат Њујоршки адвокат и брокер. Тие имале два сина и една ќерка.[10]

Мајклсон бил фасциниран со науките, посебно со проблемот со мерењето на брзината на светлината. Додека бил во Анаполис, го спровел својот прв експеримент за брзината на светлината, како дел од демонстрација за време на часот во 1877.Неговиот Анаполски експеримент бил рефиниран,и во 1879, ја измерил брзината на светлината и таа била 299,864±51 километри во секунда, и ја проценил брзината на светлината во вакуум како 299,940 km/s, или 186,380 mi/s.[11][12][13] По 2 години студии во Европа, дал отставка од Морнарицата во 1881. Во 1883 добил позиција како професор по физика во Case School of Applied Science во Кливленд, Охајо и се концентрирал на развивање на подобар интерферометар.Во 1887 тој и Едвард Морли го извеле познатиот Мајклсон-Морли експеримент кој го отфрлил постоењето на етер. Тој подоцна го искористил астрономскиот интерферометар во мерките на ѕвездените дијаметри и во мерење на разделеноста на бинарните ѕвезди.

Во 1889 Мајклсон станал професор во Кларк Универзитет во Ворчестер, Масачусетс и во 1892 бил назначен професор и прв шеф на одделот за физика и новоорганизираниот Универзитет на Чикаго.

Во 1899, се венчал со Една Стантон.Тие имале еден син и три ќерки.

Во 1907, Мајклсон ја имал честа да биде првиот Американец да ја добие Нобеловата Награда по Физика "for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid". Тој исто така го освоил Копли Медалот во 1907, Хенри Драпер медалот во 1916 и Златниот медал на Кралското Астрономско Друштво во 1923. Исто така,кратер на Месечината е именуван по него.

Мајклсон починал во Пасадина, Калифорнија на возраст од 78. Универзитетот на Chicago Residence Halls се сеќава на Мајклсон и неговите достигнувања со посветување на 'Мајклсон Куќата' во негова чест.Case Western Reserve има посветено Мајклсон Куќа по него, и Мајклсон Хол (академска зграда со училници за науки,лабаратории и канцеларии) во Поморската академија на САД исто така носи негово име. Универзитетот Кларк именувал театер по него.[14] Мајклсон лабараторијата во Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake во Риџкрест,Калифорнија е именувана по него. Постои дисплеј во делот кој е отворен во Лабараторијата во кој се прикажани факсимили од неговата Нобелова Награда (медалот), документот за наградата и примери од неговите дифракциони мрежи.

Speed of light[уреди | уреди извор]

Page one of Michelson's Experimental Determination of the Velocity of Light
Податотека:Michelson - Experimental Determination of the Speed of Light, conclusion.jpg
Concluding page of Michelson's Experimental Determination of the Velocity of Light

Early measurements[уреди | уреди извор]

As early as 1877, while still serving as an officer in the United States Navy, Michelson started planning a refinement of the rotating-mirror method of Léon Foucault for measuring the speed of light, using improved optics and a longer baseline. He conducted some preliminary measurements using largely improvised equipment in 1878, about the same time that his work came to the attention of Simon Newcomb, director of the Nautical Almanac Office who was already advanced in planning his own study. Michelson published his result of 299,910±50 km/s in 1879 before joining Newcomb in Washington DC to assist with his measurements there. Thus began a long professional collaboration and friendship between the two.

Simon Newcomb, with his more adequately funded project, obtained a value of 299,860±30 km/s, just at the extreme edge of consistency with Michelson's. Michelson continued to "refine" his method and in 1883 published a measurement of 299,853±60 km/s, rather closer to that of his mentor.

Lt. Cmdr. Albert A. Michelson while serving in the U.S. Navy. He rejoined the U.S. Navy in World War I,[15] when this portrait was taken.

Mount Wilson and Lookout Mountain[уреди | уреди извор]

In 1906, a novel electrical method was used by E. B. Rosa and N. E. Dorsey of the National Bureau of Standards to obtain a value for the speed of light of 299,781±10 km/s. Though this result has subsequently been shown to be severely biased by the poor electrical standards in use at the time, it seems to have set a fashion for rather lower measured values.

From 1920, Michelson started planning a definitive measurement from the Mount Wilson Observatory, using a baseline to Lookout Mountain, a prominent bump on the south ridge of Mount San Antonio ("Old Baldy"), some 22 miles distant.

In 1922, the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey began two years of painstaking measurement of the baseline using the recently available invar tapes. With the baseline length established in 1924, measurements were carried out over the next two years to obtain the published value of 299,796±4 km/s.[16]

Famous as the measurement is, it was beset by problems, not least of which was the haze created by the smoke from forest fires which blurred the mirror image. It is also probable that the intensively detailed work of the geodetic survey, with an estimated error of less than one part in 1 million, was compromised by a shift in the baseline arising from the Santa Barbara earthquake of June 29, 1925, which was an estimated magnitude of 6.3 on the Richter scale.

The now-famous Michelson–Morley experiment also influenced the affirmation attempts of peer Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity and special relativity, using similar optical instrumentation. These instruments and related collaborations included the participation of fellow physicists Dayton Miller, Hendrik Lorentz, and Robert Shankland.

Michelson, Pease, and Pearson[уреди | уреди извор]

The period after 1927 marked the advent of new measurements of the speed of light using novel electro-optic devices, all substantially lower than Michelson's 1926 value.

Michelson sought another measurement, but this time in an evacuated tube to avoid difficulties in interpreting the image owing to atmospheric effects. In 1930, he began a collaboration with Francis G. Pease and Fred Pearson to perform a measurement in a 1.6 km tube at Pasadena, California. Michelson died with only 36 of the 233 measurement series completed and the experiment was subsequently beset by geological instability and condensation problems before the result of 299,774±11 km/s, consistent with the prevailing electro-optic values, was published posthumously in 1935.

Interferometry[уреди | уреди извор]

In 1887 he collaborated with colleague Edward Williams Morley of Western Reserve University, now part of Case Western Reserve University, in the Michelson–Morley experiment. Their experiment for the expected motion of the Earth relative to the aether, the hypothetical medium in which light was supposed to travel, resulted in a null result. Surprised, Michelson repeated the experiment with greater and greater precision over the next years, but continued to find no ability to measure the aether. The Michelson-Morley results were immensely influential in the physics community, leading Hendrik Lorentz to devise his now-famous Lorentz contraction equations as a means of explaining the null result.

There has been some historical controversy over whether Albert Einstein was aware of the Michelson-Morley results when he developed his theory of special relativity, which pronounced the aether to be "superfluous." In a later interview, Einstein said of the Michelson-Morley experiment, "I was not conscious it had influenced me directly... I guess I just took it for granted that it was true.“[17] Regardless of Einstein's specific knowledge, the experiment is today considered the canonical experiment in regards to showing the lack of a detectable aether.[18][19]

Astronomical interferometry[уреди | уреди извор]

From 1920 and into 1921 Michelson and Francis G. Pease became the first individuals to measure the diameter of a star other than the Sun. They used an astronomical interferometer at the Mount Wilson Observatory to measure the diameter of the super-giant star Betelgeuse. A periscope arrangement was used to obtain a densified pupil in the interferometer, a method later investigated in detail by Antoine Émile Henry Labeyrie for use in "Hypertelescopes". The measurement of stellar diameters and the separations of binary stars took up an increasing amount of Michelson's life after this.

A century later, the specific interferometer instrumentation design produced by Albert Michelson has become the principal means to conduct astronomical interferometry. The "Michelson Interferometer" design is found on modern operational observatories such as VLTI, CHARA and the U.S. Navy's NPOI.

Michelson in popular culture[уреди | уреди извор]

In an episode of the television series Bonanza ("Look to the Stars", broadcast March 18, 1962), Ben Cartwright (Lorne Greene) helps the 16-year-old Michelson (portrayed by 25-year-old Douglas Lambert (1936–1986)) obtain an appointment to the U.S. Naval Academy, despite the opposition of the bigoted town schoolteacher (played by William Schallert). Bonanza was set in and around Virginia City, Nevada, where Michelson lived with his parents prior to leaving for the Naval Academy. In a voice-over at the end of the episode, Greene mentions Michelson's 1907 Nobel Prize.

The home in which Michelson lived as a child in Murphys Camp, California is now a tasting room for Twisted Oak Winery.

New Beast Theater Works in collaboration with High Concept Laboratories produced a 'semi-opera' about Michelson, his obsessive working style and its effect on his family life. The production ran from February 11 to February 26, 2011 in Chicago at The Building Stage. Michelson was portrayed by Jon Stutzman. The play was directed by David Maral with music composed by Joshua Dumas.[се бара извор]Norman Fitzroy Maclean wrote an essay "Billiards is a Good Game"; published in The Norman Maclean Reader (ed. O. Alan Weltzien, 2008), it is an appreciation of Michelson from Maclean's vantage point as a graduate student regularly watching him play billiards.

Honors and awards[уреди | уреди извор]

A monument at United States Naval Academy marks the path of Michelson's experiments measuring the speed of light.

Michelson was a member of the Royal Society, the National Academy of Sciences, the American Physical Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

The Computer Measurement Group gives an annual A. A. Michelson Award.

Поврзано[уреди | уреди извор]

Наводи[уреди | уреди извор]

  1. Albert Abraham Michelson 1852–1931
  2. Naukowe, Łódzkie (2003). Bulletin de la Société des sciences et des lettres de Łódź: Série, Recherches sur les déformations, Volumes 39-42. Société des sciences et des lettres de Łódź. стр. 162. „Michelson's biographers stress, that our hero was not conspicuous by religiousness. His father was a free-thinker and Michelson grew up in non-religious family and have no opportunity to acknowledge the believe of his forebears. He was agnostic through his whole life and only for the short period he was a member of the 21st lodge in Washington.“ 
  3. John D. Barrow (2002). The Book of Nothing: Vacuums, Voids, and the Latest Ideas About the Origins of the Universe. Random House Digital, Inc.. стр. 136. ISBN 978-0-375-72609-5. „Morley was deeply religious. His original training had been in theology and he only turned to chemistry, a self-taught hobby, when he was unable to enter the ministry. Michelson, by contrast, was a religious agnostic.“ 
  4. 1984; Dorothy Michelson Livingston; One Pass Productions; Cinema Guild. The Master of Light: A Biography of Albert A. Michelson. University of Chicago Press. стр. 106. „On the religious question, Michelson disagreed with both these men. He had renounced any belief that moral issues were at stake in ...“ 
  5. Levy, 920 O'Farrell Street, 47.
  6. Nimitz Library's Virtual Exhibits- LibExhibits
  7. Nineteenth century astronomy at the U.S. Naval Academy
  8. USNO - Our Command History — Naval Oceanography Portal
  9. http://eprints.jcu.edu.au/4957/1/4957_Shankland%26Orchiston_2002.pdf
  10. James, I. (2009). Driven to Innovate: A Century of Jewish Mathematicians and Physicists p. 101. ISBN 978-1-906165-22-2. "In 1877, he married Margaret Hemingway, daughter of a wealthy New York stockbroker and lawyer. This marriage lasted twenty years and produced two sons and a daughter."
  11. Speed of light measurements history
  12. Optics News - Optics at the U.S. Naval Academy
  13. Michelson's 1879 determinations of the speed of light
  14. Facilities | Visual and Performing Arts | Departments | Clark University
  15. Albert A. Michelson - Biography
  16. Garner, C. L., Captain (retired) (April 1949). A Geodetic Measurement of Unusually High Accuracy. „U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Journal“ (Coast and Geodetic Survey): 68–74. http://www.pvaa.us/nightwatch/GeodeticMeasurementOfUnusuallyHighAccuracy.pdf. конс. 13 август 2009. 
  17. Swenson, Loyd S. Jr., "The Ethereal Aether: A History of the Michelson-Morley-Miller Aether-Drift Experiments, 1880-1930," University of Texas Press, 1972
  18. Note that while Einstein's 1905 paper On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies appears to reference the experiment on first glance—"together with the unsuccessful attempts to discover any motion of the earth relatively to the 'light medium,' suggest that the phenomena of electrodynamics as well as of mechanics possess no properties corresponding to the idea of absolute rest"—it has been shown that Einstein was referring to a different category of experiments here.
  19. Holton, Gerald, "Einstein, Michelson, and the 'Crucial' Experiment", Isis, Vol. 60, No. 2 (Summer, 1969), pp. 133–197
  20. „Henry Draper Medal“. National Academy of Sciences. http://www.nasonline.org/about-nas/awards/henry-draper-medal.html. конс. 19 февруари 2011. 

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