Концентрационен логор Бухенвалд

Од Википедија — слободната енциклопедија
Прејди на прегледникот Прејди на пребарувањето

Шаблон:Infobox concentration camp

Бухенвалд (гер. Buchenwald,гермснки изговор: [ˈbuːxənvalt]; буквално букова шума) беше Нацистички концентрационен камп основан на ридот Етерсберг близу Вајмар, Германија, во јули 1937. Претставува еден од првите и најголемите концентрациони логори во германските граници од 1937. Многу вистински или комунисти под сомнеж беа меѓу првите затвореници.

Затвореници од цела Европа и СССР—Евреи, Пољаци и други Словени, ментално болните и луѓето со физичка попреченост, политички затвореници, Роми, Масони, криминалци, хомосексуалци и воени затвореници—првенствено работеа принудна работа во локални фабрики за вооружување. Недостигот на храна и лошите услови, како и намерните погубувања, доведоа до смрт на 56 000 луѓе во Бухенвалд, од вкупно 250 000 кои имаат поминато низ логорот. Логорот стана озогласен кога беше ослободен од Армијата на САД во 1945 година; сојузничкиот командант Двајт Д. Ајзенхауер посети еден од неговите подлогори.

Од 1945 до 1950, логорот е користен од советските окупаторски власти како затворски логор, специјален логор бр. 21 на НКВД. Денес, остатоците од Бухенвалд служат како меморијална и трајна изложба и музеј.

Управа[уреди | уреди извор]

Портите на Бухенвалд со натписот "Jedem das Seine"

Шуцштафел (СС) почнува да управува со Бухенвалд на почетокот на јули 1937 година.[1] Логорот требало да биде именуван како Етерсберг, според ридот во Турингија, на чиј северен наклон е изграден логорот.[1][2] Бараното име се чинеше несоодветно, бидејќи асоцира на неколку важни фигури во германската култура, особено на просветителскиот пистел Јохан Волфганг фон Гете. Наместо тоа, логорот е именуван Бухенвалд, алудирајќи на буковата шума во близина. Сепак, истражувачот на Холокаустот, Deutsch (de) напиша дека СС лидерот го одбрал токму ова место за да го избрише културното наследство на пределот. Откако просторот за логорот е исчистен од дрвја, останато е само едно големо дабово дрво, со претпоставка дека е едно од Гетеовите дабови.[3][4] На главната порта е напишано мотото Jedem das Seine (македонски: „Секому своето“ или „Секому тоа што го заслужува“). СС ова го протолкува како право на "супериорната раса" да го понижува и уништува останатите.[5]

Логорот, основан за да собира 8000 затвореници, е наменет да замени колку помали концентрациони логори во близина, вклучувајќи ги Deutsch (de), Заксенсбург и Лихтебург. Споредено со овие логори, Бухенвалд имал поголем потенцијал за СС да профитира, бидејќи од блиските глинени одрони можело да се направат цигли од принудната работна сила (затворениците). Првите затвореници пристигнале на 15 јули 1937 година и морале да го исчистат просторот од дрвја и да ја изградат структурата на логорот.[1] До септември, популацијата расте на 2400, благодарејќи на трансферите од Бад Сулца, Заксенбург и Лихтенбург.[6]

Командна структура[уреди | уреди извор]

Организација[уреди | уреди извор]

Првиот командант на Бухенвалд беше СС-овиот Оберштрумбанфирер, Карл-Ото Кох, кој управува со логорот од 1 август 1937 до јули 1941 година. Неговата втора сопруга, Илзе Кох, стана озогласена под прекарот Die Hexe von Buchenwald (македонски: „вештерката од Бухенвалд“) поради нејзината бруталност и суровост. Во февруари 1940 година Кох, на негово и на задоволство на неговата сопруга, имаше внатрешна сала за јавање, изградена од затворениците кои умирале поради суровите услови на градилиштето. Салата е изградена во внатрешноста на логорот, близу кантината, па често можеле да ја видат Илзе Кох како јава наутро по ритамот на затвореничкиот оркестар.[7] Самиот Кох ќе биде затворен во Бухенвалд од нацистичките власти поради поттикнување убиство. Обвиненијата ќе бидат поднесени од принцот Валдек и д-р Морген, на што подоцна ќе бидат додадени и обвиненија за корупција, проневера, договори на црниот пазар и експлоатација на работниците во логорот за лична добивка.[8] Обвинети се и други овластени во логорот, вклучувајќи ја и Илзе Кох. Судењето резултира со смртна казна за Карл Кох поради осрамотување на себеси и СС; егзекутиран е на 5 април 1945, една недела пред пристигнувањето на американските трупи. Илзе Кох е осудена на четири годишна затворска казна по војната. Нејзината казна потоа е намалена на две години и таа е ослободена. Подоцна повторно е уапсена и осудена на доживотен затвор од повоените германски власти; се самоубива во затворот во Ајнах (Баварија) во септември 1967 година.[9] Вториот командант на логорот, помеѓу 1942 и 1945, беше Херман Пистер (1942–1945). Нему му се суди во 1947 година (Дахау судења) и е осуден на смрт, но на 28 септември 1948, тој умира од срцев удар во Затворот Ландсберг, уште пред да се реализира пресудата.[10]

Buchenwald camp money

Женски затворенички и надзорнички[уреди | уреди извор]

Бројот на жени затворенички во Бухенвалд беше помеѓу 500 и 1000. Првите жени затворенички беа дваесет политички затворенички кои беа придружувани од женски СС чувари (гер. Aufseherin); овие жени беа донесени во Бухенвалд од Равенсбрук во 1941 година и беа присилени на сексуално ропство во логорскиот бордел. СС подоцна ги осуди СС жените на должност во борделот за корупција; нивните позиции се преземени од „борделски мајки“, по наредба на СС шефот Хајнрих Химлер.

Најголемиот дел од затвореничките сепак пристигнуваат во 1944 и 1945 од останатите логори, главни од Аушвиц, Равенсбрук и Берген Белзен. Само една барака е одвоена за нив; ова е надгледувано од женскиот лидер на блокот (германски: Blockführerin), Франциска Хоенгесберг, која доаѓа од Есен кога беше евакуиран. Сите жени затворенички подоцна беа пренесени на еден од многуте Бухенвалдски сателитски логори во Зомерда, Бутелштедт, Милхаузен, Гота, Гелзенкирхен, Есен, Липштадт, Вајмар, Магдебург и Пених. Немало женски чувари кои биле трајно распоредени во Бухенвалд.

Илзе Кох служи како главен надзорник (германски: Oberaufseherin) на 22 други женски чувари и стотици женски чувари во главниот логор. Повеќе од 530 жени служат како чувари во огромниот Бухенвалдски систем на поткампови и надворешни команди низ цела Германија. Само 22 жени служат/се обучуваат во Бухенвалд, споредено со над 15 500 мажи.[11]

Подлогори[уреди | уреди извор]

Првите подлогори на Бухенвалд се основани во 1941 година, за затворениците да можат да работат во блиските СС индустрии. Во 1942 година, СС почна да ја користи принудната работа за производство на оружје. Зашто е поекономично да се изнајмат затвореници на приватни фирми, поткамповите се поставени близу фирми кои имаат потреба од работна рака. Приватните фирми им плаќале на СС меѓу 4 и 6 марки дневно по затвореник, резултирајќи во 95 758 843 марки приход за СС помеѓу јуни 1943 и февруари 1945 година.[12] Постоеле повеќе од 95 подлогори. Условите биле полоши отколку од главниот логор. Затворениците не биле снабудвани со доволно храна и имале неадекватни засолништа.[13]

Сојузнички затвореници[уреди | уреди извор]

Иако е многу необично германски власти да испратат западни сојузнички затвореници во концентрациони логори, Бухенвалд имал група од 168 воздухопловци за два месеци.[14] Овие мажи биле од САД, Обединетото Кралство, Канада, Австралија, Нов Зеланд и Јамајка. Сите пристигнале во Бухенвалд на 20 август 1944 година.[15][16]

All these airmen were in aircraft that had crashed in occupied France. Two explanations are given for them being sent to a concentration camp: first, that they had managed to make contact with the French Resistance, some were disguised as civilians, and they were carrying false papers when caught; they were therefore categorized by the Germans as spies, which meant their rights under the Geneva Convention were not respected. The second explanation is that they had been categorised as Terrorflieger ("terror aviators"). The aviators were initially held in Gestapo prisons and headquarters in France. In April or August 1944, they and other Gestapo prisoners were packed into covered goods wagons (US: boxcars) and sent to Buchenwald. The journey took five days, during which they received very little food or water.[17]

Death toll[уреди | уреди извор]

Causes of death[уреди | уреди извор]

Polish prisoners await execution

A primary cause of death was illness due to harsh camp conditions, with starvation—and its consequent illnesses—prevalent. Malnourished and suffering from disease, many were literally "worked to death" under the Vernichtung durch Arbeit policy (extermination through labor), as inmates only had the choice between slave labor or inevitable execution. Many inmates died as a result of human experimentation or fell victim to arbitrary acts perpetrated by the SS guards. Other prisoners were simply murdered, primarily by shooting and hanging.

Walter Gerhard Martin Sommer was an SS-Hauptscharführer who served as a guard at the concentration camps of Dachau and Buchenwald. Known as the "Hangman of Buchenwald", he was considered a depraved sadist who reportedly ordered Otto Neururer and Mathias Spannlang, two Austrian priests, to be crucified upside-down. Sommer was especially infamous for hanging prisoners off of trees from their wrists, which had been tied behind their backs (a torture technique known as strappado) in the "singing forest", so named because of the screams which emanated from this wooded area.[18][19]

Summary executions of Soviet POWs were also carried out at Buchenwald. At least 1,000 men were selected in 1941–42 by a task force of three Dresden Gestapo officers and sent to the camp for immediate liquidation by a gunshot to the back of the neck, the infamous Genickschuss.

The camp was also a site of large-scale trials for vaccines against epidemic typhus in 1942 and 1943. In all 729 inmates were used as test subjects, of whom 154 died.[20] Other "experimentation" occurred at Buchenwald on a smaller scale. One such experiment aimed at determining the precise fatal dose of a poison of the alkaloid group; according to the testimony of one doctor, four Soviet POWs were administered the poison, and when it proved not to be fatal they were "strangled in the crematorium" and subsequently "dissected".[21] Among various other experiments was one which, in order to test the effectiveness of a balm for wounds from incendiary bombs, involved inflicting "very severe" white phosphorus burns on inmates.[22] When challenged at trial over the nature of this testing, and particularly over the fact that the testing was designed in some cases to cause death and only to measure the time which elapsed until death was caused, one Nazi doctor's defence was that, although a doctor, he was a "legally appointed executioner".[23]

Number of deaths[уреди | уреди извор]

Crystal Clear app xmag.svg Главна статија: „Number of deaths in Buchenwald.
U.S. Senator Alben W. Barkley (D-Kentucky) looks on after Buchenwald's liberation.

The SS left behind accounts of the number of prisoners and people coming to and leaving the camp, categorizing those leaving them by release, transfer, or death. These accounts are one of the sources of estimates for the number of deaths in Buchenwald. According to SS documents, 33,462 died. These documents were not, however, necessarily accurate: Among those executed before 1944, many were listed as "transferred to the Gestapo". Furthermore, from 1941, Soviet POWs were executed in mass killings. Arriving prisoners selected for execution were not entered into the camp register and therefore were not among the 33,462 dead listed.[24]

One former Buchenwald prisoner, Armin Walter, calculated the number of executions by the number of shootings in the spine at the base of the head. His job at Buchenwald was to set up and care for a radio installation at the facility where people were executed; he counted the numbers, which arrived by telex, and hid the information. He says that 8,483 Soviet prisoners of war were shot in this manner.[25]

According to the same source, the total number of deaths at Buchenwald is estimated at 56,545. This number is the sum of:

  • Deaths according to material left behind by the SS: 33,462[26]
  • Executions by shooting: 8,483
  • Executions by hanging (estimate): 1,100
  • Deaths during evacuation transports (estimate): 13,500[27]

This total (56,545) corresponds to a death rate of 24 percent, assuming that the number of persons passing through the camp according to documents left by the SS, 240,000 prisoners, is accurate.[28]

Liberation[уреди | уреди извор]

Prisoner of KZBuchenwald with member of SS personnel after entry of U.S. Army 1945.

On April 4, 1945, the U.S. 89th Infantry Division overran Ohrdruf, a subcamp of Buchenwald.

Buchenwald was partially evacuated by the Germans from April 6, 1945, until April 11, 1945. In the days before the arrival of the American army, thousands of the prisoners were forced to join the evacuation marches.[29] Thanks in large part to the efforts of Polish engineer (and short-wave radio-amateur, his pre-war callsign was SP2BD) Gwidon Damazyn, an inmate since March 1941, a secret short-wave transmitter and small generator were built and hidden in the prisoners' movie room. On April 8 at noon, Damazyn and Russian prisoner Konstantin Ivanovich Leonov sent the Morse code message prepared by leaders of the prisoners' underground resistance (supposedly Walter Bartel and Deutsch (de)):

To the Allies. To the army of General Patton. This is the Buchenwald concentration camp. SOS. We request help. They want to evacuate us. The SS wants to destroy us.

The text was repeated several times in English, German, and Russian. Damazyn sent the English and German transmissions, while Leonov sent the Russian version. Three minutes after the last transmission sent by Damazyn, the headquarters of the U.S. Third Army responded:

KZ Bu. Hold out. Rushing to your aid. Staff of Third Army.

The bodies of prisoners in the liberated Buchenwald, 16 April 1945

According to Teofil Witek, a fellow Polish prisoner who witnessed the transmissions, Damazyn fainted after receiving the message.[30]

After this news had been received, inmates stormed the watchtowers and killed the remaining guards, using arms they had been collecting since 1942 (one machine gun and 91 rifles; see Buchenwald Resistance).[31]

A detachment of troops of the U.S. 9th Armored Infantry Battalion, from the 6th Armored Division, part of the U.S. Third Army, and under the command of Captain Frederic Keffer, arrived at Buchenwald on April 11, 1945 at 3:15 p.m. (now the permanent time of the clock at the entrance gate). The soldiers were given a hero's welcome, with the emaciated survivors finding the strength to toss some liberators into the air in celebration.[32]

Later in the day, elements of the U.S. 83rd Infantry Division overran Langenstein, one of a number of smaller camps comprising the Buchenwald complex. There, the division liberated over 21,000 prisoners,[32] ordered the mayor of Langenstein to send food and water to the camp, and hurried medical supplies forward from the 20th Field Hospital.

Third Army Headquarters sent elements of the 80th Infantry Division to take control of the camp on the morning of Thursday, April 12, 1945. Several journalists arrived on the same day, perhaps with the 80th, including Edward R. Murrow, whose radio report of his arrival and reception was broadcast on CBS and became one of his most famous:

I asked to see one of the barracks. It happened to be occupied by Czechoslovaks. When I entered, men crowded around, tried to lift me to their shoulders. They were too weak. Many of them could not get out of bed. I was told that this building had once stabled 80 horses. There were 1,200 men in it, five to a bunk. The stink was beyond all description.

They called the doctor. We inspected his records. There were only names in the little black book, nothing more. Nothing about who these men were, what they had done, or hoped. Behind the names of those who had died, there was a cross. I counted them. They totaled 242. 242 out of 1,200, in one month.

As we walked out into the courtyard, a man fell dead. Two others, they must have been over 60, were crawling toward the latrine. I saw it, but will not describe it.

— Extract from Edward R. Murrow's Buchenwald Report – 15 April 1945.[33]

Civilian tour[уреди | уреди извор]

After Patton toured the camp, he ordered the mayor of Weimar to bring 1,000 citizens to Buchenwald; these were to be predominantly men of military age from the middle and upper classes. The Germans had to walk 25 kiloметарs (82,000 ст) roundtrip under armed American guard and were shown the crematorium and other evidence of Nazi atrocities. The Americans wanted to ensure that the German people would take responsibility for Nazi crimes, instead of dismissing them as atrocity propaganda.[34]

Aftermath[уреди | уреди извор]

Buchenwald Trial[уреди | уреди извор]

Crystal Clear app xmag.svg Главна статија: „Buchenwald Trial.
Ilse Koch testifies

Thirty SS perpetrators at Buchenwald were tried before a US military tribunal in 1947, including Higher SS and Police Leader Josias Erbprinz zu Waldeck und Pyrmont, who oversaw the SS district that Buchenwald was located in, and many of the doctors responsible for Nazi human experimentation. Almost all of the defendants were convicted, and 22 were sentenced to death. However, only nine death sentences were carried out, and by the mid-1950s, all perpetrators had been freed except for Ilsa Koch. Additional perpetrators were tried before German courts during the 1960s.[35]

The site[уреди | уреди извор]

Between August 1945 and February 1950, Buchenwald was the site of NKVD special camp Nr. 2, where the Soviet secret police imprisoned former Nazis and anti-communist dissidents.[36] After the NKVD camp closed, much of the camp was razed, while signs were erected to provide a Soviet interpretation of the camp's legacy.[37] The first monument to victims was erected days after the initial liberation. Intended to be completely temporary, it was built by prisoners and made of wood. A second monument to commemorate the dead was erected in 1958 by the GDR near the mass graves. Inside the camp, there is a stainless steel monument in the place of the first monument, the surface of which is maintained at 37 °C (99 °F), the temperature of human skin, all year round.[38][39] Today the remains of Buchenwald serves as a memorial and permanent exhibition and museum administrated by Buchenwald and Mittelbau-Dora Memorials Foundation, which also administrates the camp memorial at Mittelbau-Dora.[40]

Literature[уреди | уреди извор]

Survivors who have written about their camp experiences include Jorge Semprún, who in Quel beau dimanche! describes conversations involving Goethe and Léon Blum, and Ernst Wiechert, whose Der Totenwald was written in 1939 but not published until 1945, and which likewise involved Goethe. Scholars have investigated how camp inmates used art to help deal with their circumstances, and according to Theodor Ziolkowski writers often did so by turning to Goethe.[41] Artist Léon Delarbre sketched, besides other scenes of camp life, the Goethe Oak, under which he used to sit and write.[42] One of the few prisoners who escaped from the camp, the Belgian Edmond Vandievoet, recounted his experiences in a book whose English title is "I escaped from a Nazi Death Camp" [Editions Jourdan, 2015]. In his work Night, Elie Wiesel talks about his stay in Buchenwald, including his father's death.[43]

Посети од Претседателот Обама и Канцеларката Меркел[уреди | уреди извор]

Video of President Obama's visit

On June 5, 2009, U.S. President Barack Obama and German Chancellor Angela Merkel visited Buchenwald after a tour of Dresden Castle and Church of Our Lady. During the visit they were accompanied by Elie Wiesel and Шаблон:Interlanguage link multi, both survivors of the camp.[44] Шаблон:Interlanguage link multi, the director of the Buchenwald and Mittelbau-Dora Memorials Foundation and honorary professor of University of Jena, guided the four guests through the remainder of the site of the camp.[45] During the visit Elie Wiesel, who together with Bertrand Herz were sent to the Little camp as 16-year-old boys, said, "if these trees could talk." His statement marked the irony about the beauty of the landscape and the horrors that took place within the camp.[45] President Obama mentioned during his visit that he had heard stories as a child from his great uncle, who was part of the 89th Infantry Division, the first Americans to reach the camp at Ohrdruf, one of Buchenwald's satellites.[44] Obama was the first sitting US President to visit the Buchenwald concentration camp.[39]

Поврзано[уреди | уреди извор]

Наводи[уреди | уреди извор]

  1. 1,0 1,1 1,2 Zegenhagen 2009, стр. 290.
  2. Rapson 2015, стр. 27.
  3. Rapson 2015, стр. 25, 27.
  4. Wachsmann 2015, стр. 177–178.
  5. Rapson 2015, стр. 51.
  6. Wachsmann 2015, стр. 178.
  7. Wachsmann 2015, стр. 198.
  8. Hackett 1997, стр. 341.
  9. Hackett 1997, p. 43 n.19
  10. Hackett 1997, p. 59 n.29
  11. Stein, Harry (2005). Gedenkstatte Buchenwald. уред. Buchenwald concentration camp 1937–1945 (A Guide to the Permanent Historical Exhibition). Wallstein. ISBN 978-3-89244-695-8. 
  12. Zanden 2009, стр. 297.
  13. Zanden 2009, стр. 298.
  14. Veterans Affairs Canada, 2006: "Prisoners of War in the Second World War" Accessed 16 May 2007.
  15. National Museum of the USAF: "Allied Victims of the Holocaust" Accessed 9 July 2017.
  16. „Eyewitness accounts of Art Kinnis, president of KLB (Konzentrationslager Buchenwald), and 2nd Lt. Joseph Moser, one of the surviving pilots“. www.buchenwaldflyboy.wordpress.com. 
  17. From The Lucky Ones: Allied Airmen and Buchenwald (1994 film, directed by Michael Allder), cited by Veterans Affairs Canada, 2006: "Prisoners of War in the Second World War" Accessed 16 May 2007.
  18. The resistance in Austria, 1938–1945 By Radomír Luža Publisher: University of Minnesota Press (April 9, 1984)
  19. Stein 2005, стр. 302.
  20. Spitz, Vivien (2005). Doctors from Hell: The Horrific Account of Nazi Experiments on Humans. Sentient Publications. ISBN 978-1-59181-032-2. 
  21. Spitz 2005, pp. 209–10
  22. Spitz 2005, pp. 213–4
  23. Spitz 2005, p. 209
  24. Bartel 1961, стр. . 64, lines 12–23.
  25. Bartel 1961, p. 203, lines 18–38.
  26. Includes male deaths in satellite camps.
  27. Bartel (1961, p. 87, line 17–18) reports that somewhere between 12,000 and 15,000 prisoners died on evacuation transports in March and April 1945.
  28. Bartel 1960, p. 87, line 8.
  29. Stein 2005, p. 227 "Evacuation".
  30. Langbein, Hermann; Zohn, Harry (translator) (1994) (на English). Against All Hope: Resistance in the Nazi Concentration Camps, 1938–1945. New York: Paragon House. стр. 502. ISBN 1-55778-363-2. 
  31. Several eyewitness reports of Dutch and German inmates of Buchenwald at the Dutch Institute for War Documentation NIOD in Amsterdam.
  32. 32,0 32,1 Wayne Drash. „Buchenwald liberator, American hero dies at 83“, „CNN“, 14 август 2008.
  33. „Edward R. Murrow Reports From Buchenwald“. www.otr.com. 
  34. Mauriello 2017, стр. 32–34.
  35. Zegenhagen 2009, стр. 293–294.
  36. Marcuse 2010, стр. 190.
  37. Marcuse 2010, стр. 200.
  38. Young, James E.: At Memory's Edge: After-Images of the Holocaust in Contemporary Art and Architecture, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000, p. 105.
  39. 39,0 39,1 „Obama Visits Buchenwald Concentration Camp“. 
  40. „Buchenwald and Mittelbau-Dora Memorials Foundation – Purpose of the Foundation“. Buchenwald and Mittelbau-Dora Memorials Foundation. конс. 18 August 2012. 
  41. Ziolkowski, Theodore. Das Treffen in Buchenwald oder Der vergegenwärtigte Goethe. „Modern Language Studies“ том  31 (1). doi:10.2307/3195281. 
  42. Jenkins, David Fraser (2000). John Piper: The Forties. New Age International. стр. 84. ISBN 978-0-85667-534-8. https://books.google.com/books?id=y7WuzDK3dSkC&pg=PA84. 
  43. Wiesel, Elie (2007). La Nuit (2nd издание). Paris: Éditions de Minuit. стр. 194–200. 
  44. 44,0 44,1 „Buchenwald – The WhiteHouseBlog“. The White House. Архивирано од изворникот на 2012-07-20. конс. 18 August 2012. 
  45. 45,0 45,1 Weimar, Germany (5 June 2009). </noinclude>

Sources

Поврзано[уреди | уреди извор]

  • Knigge, Volkhard und Ritscher, Bodo: Totenbuch. Speziallager Buchenwald 1945–1950, Weimar: Stiftung Gedenkstätten Buchenwald und Mittelbau Dora, 2003.

Надворешни врски[уреди | уреди извор]

Шаблон:Холокауст

Координати: 51°01′20″N 11°14′53″E / 51.02222° СГШ; 11.24806° ИГД / 51.02222; 11.24806