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This template is used for drawing branching trees with the node and base labels being clickable links. Such diagrams are especially suited to represent evolutionary trees (cladograms).

See {{Cladex}} for two extra features:

  • Double lines leading to a node can be produced as easily as dotted lines.
  • Brackets or bars of a chosen colour can be placed to the right of a set of leaf nodes in the cladogram, thus allowing paraphyletic groups to be identified.

Basic features

Usage[уреди извор]


{{clade
|label1=Base
|1=Node
}}

produces

Base

Node



{{clade
|1={{clade
   |label1=[[Subtree1]]
   |1=Leaf1
   |label2=Subtree2
   |2=[[Leaf2]]
   }}
}}

produces


Subtree1 

Leaf1


Subtree2 

Leaf2




{{clade| style=font-size:75%;line-height:75%;
|1={{clade
   |label1=Subtree1
   |1=Leaf1
   |label2=Subtree2
   |2=Leaf2
   }}
}}

produces


Subtree1

Leaf1


Subtree2

Leaf2



Note that the order of the parameters does not matter. Exactly the same output is produced by


{{clade| style=font-size:75%;line-height:75%;
|1={{clade
   |2=Leaf2
   |1=Leaf1
   |label1=Subtree1
   |label2=Subtree2
   }}
}}

Subtree1

Leaf1


Subtree2

Leaf2




Styling brackets and branches[уреди извор]

Description Template code Resulting output
Styling brackets

The thickness, colour and state (solid, dashed, etc) of bracket lines can be changed using the thickness=, |color= and |state= parameters.


{{clade
   |label1=Bracket styling
   |sublabel1=(no suffix)
   |style1x=background-color:#ffffee;
   |1={{Clade
      |label2=color
      |2={{Clade |color=red 
         |1=A
         |2=B                
         |3=C             
        }}
      |label1=thickness
      |1={{Clade |thickness=3
          |1=I  
          |2=J          
          |3=K             
          }}
      |label3=state
      |3={{Clade |state=dashed
         |1=X 
         |2=Y         
         |3=Z        
 
         }}
      }}
}}


Bracket styling
thickness

I



J



K



color

A



B



C



state

X



Y



Z




Styling individual branches

The thickness, colour and state of individual branch lines can be changed using the thicknessN=, |colorN= and |stateN= parameters, where N is the number of the branch to be styled.


{{clade
   |label1=Branch styling
   |sublabel1=(append branch number)
   |style1x=background-color:#eeeeee;
   |1={{Clade
      |label2=colorN
      |2={{Clade
         |1=black (default) |color1=black          
         |2=red             |color2=red    
         |3=blue            |color3=blue   
         |4= #00ff00       |color4=#00ff00   
         }}
      |label1=thicknessN
      |1={{Clade
          |1=1 (default) |thickness1=1 
          |2=2           |thickness2=2 
          |3=3           |thickness3=3  
          }}
      |label3=stateN
      |3={{Clade
         |1=solid (default) |state1=solid   
         |2=dotted          |state2=dotted  
         |3=dashed          |state3=dashed 
         |4=none            |state4=none   
         |5=double          |state5=double 
         }}
      }}
}}



Branch styling
thicknessN

1 (default)



2



3



colorN

black (default)



red



blue



 #00ff00



stateN

solid (default)



dotted



dashed



none



double




Tips[уреди извор]

An easy way of creating larger cladograms is to use the Newick format and proceed to edit it using a suitable text editor to produce the markup.

  1. Start with Newick format ((a,b),(c,d))
  2. Replace "(" with "{{clade|"
  3. Replace ")" with "}}"
  4. Edit to replace commas with pipes and numbers
  5. Edit clade labels if needed

Alternatively, one can easily generate required clade code by downloading the free Windows utility, 'Claded', via link at http://code.google.com/p/claded, 'Claded' allowing editing of Cladograms using a tree control.


{{clade
 |1={{clade
    |1=a
    |2=b
    }}
 |2={{clade
    |1=c
    |2=d
    }}
}}

Example Perl script to automate the conversion:

use constant N=>"\n";
use constant T=>"\t";

my $tree='((a,b),(c,d));'; # get sequence
$tree=~s/[\n\r]//g; # loose those spaces
$tree=~ s/\:[\.\d]+//g; # loose those lengths
while ($tree=~ m/\(/) {
	foreach my $clade ($tree=~ m/\(([^\(\)]+)\)/g) {
		my @branches=split /\,/,$clade;
		s/(\t+)/$1\t/g for @branches;
		die 'ERROR: degenerate/empty node!'.N if $#branches<1;
		$tree=~ s/\(\Q$clade\E\)/${\join('','{{clade',N,map(T.'|'.($_+1).'='.$branches[$_].N,0..$#branches),T.'}}')}/; # substitute
	}
	pos($tree)=0;
}
$tree=~s/(\t*)\t\}\}/$1\}\}/g; # lazy fix

print $tree;

Using a box[уреди извор]

You can nest the templates and use links around the text. You may use non-breaking spaces (&nbsp;) to obtain spaces or to have labels that have spaces.

The entire cladogram can be placed in a box so that text flows nicely around it. You can use {{Cladogram}} to produce the box.

Example
Neornithes  
Paleognathae

 


 Neognathae 
 

Other birds


Galloanserae 

Anseriformes


    

Galliformes



Craciformes






Sample of {{Cladogram}}
{{cladogram|title=Example
|caption=Sample of {{tl|Cladogram}}
|clades={{clade| style=font-size:75%;line-height:75%;
    |label1=[[Neornithes]]  
    |1={{clade
        |label1=[[Paleognathae]]
        |1= 
        |label2= [[Neognathae]] 
        |2={{clade
            |1=Other birds
            |label1= 
            |label2=[[Galloanserae]] 
            |2={{clade
                |1=[[Anseriformes]]
                |label2=    
                |2={{clade
                    |1=[[Galliformes]]
                    |2=[[Craciformes]]
                    }}
                }}
            }}
        }}
    }}
}}

Controlling the layout of sisters[уреди извор]

When one sister is represented as a leaf node and the other as a labelled subclade, they do not appear to be at the same level. Consider this cladogram:



Banksia subser. Sphaerocarpae (5 taxa)


Banksia subser. Leptophyllae

Banksia telmatiaea



(4 other taxa)




Although Banksia subser. Sphaerocarpae and Banksia subser. Leptophyllae are sisters, their names are not aligned in the cladogram. If this is considered undesirable, one solution is to use a label in both cases, as shown hereafter, which now shows the sisters at the same level.


Banksia subser. Sphaerocarpae

(5 taxa)


Banksia subser. Leptophyllae

Banksia telmatiaea



(4 other taxa)




Another 'trick' is to introduce a dummy clade. The dotted line hereafter shows where an extra clade has been inserted:



Banksia subser. Sphaerocarpae (5 taxa)



Banksia subser. Leptophyllae

Banksia telmatiaea



(4 other taxa)





To achieve this, instead of

{{clade
 |1=Sister1
 |label2=Sister2
 |2={{clade
   |1=taxon1
   |2=taxon2}}
}}

which displays as:


Sister1


Sister2

taxon1



taxon2



use

{{clade
 |1=Sister1
 ''|2={{clade'' (extra ''dummy'' clade)
   |label1=Sister2
    |1={{clade
       |1=taxon1
       |2=taxon2}}
   }}
}}

which displays as:


Sister1



Sister2

taxon1



taxon2




{{#ifeq:clade|cladex|

Bracketting nodes[уреди извор]

To insert a coloured 'bracket' around a set of leaf nodes which follow one another in the generated cladogram:

  • Add barbeginN=colour for the first leaf node, where N is the order of that leaf node within its clade, and colour is the required colour.
  • Add barN=colour for the remaining nodes other than the last (note that N must be the order of that node within its clade).
  • Add barendN=colour for the last node.

|style=width:auto must be present.


{{clade|style=font-size:85%;line-height:100%;
|1={{clade
   |1=Leaf A
   |2=Leaf B|barbegin2=green
   |3=Leaf C|bar3=green
   |4={{clade
      |1=Leaf D|barend1=green
      |2=Leaf E
      |3=Leaf F|barbegin3=purple
      |4={{clade
         |1=Leaf G|bar1=purple
         |2=Leaf H|barend2=purple
         }}
      }}
   }}
}}

produces



Leaf A



Leaf B



Leaf C




Leaf D



Leaf E



Leaf F




Leaf G



Leaf H





The horizontal lines can be omitted by using |barN=colour throughout. Thus the following (note the use of |style=width:auto):


{{clade|style=width:auto;font-size:85%;line-height:100%;
|1=Leaf A
|2={{clade
   |1=Leaf B|bar1=midnightblue
   |2=Leaf C|bar2=midnightblue
   }}
|3=Leaf D|bar3=midnightblue
}}

produces


Leaf A




Leaf B



Leaf C




Leaf D


Note that brackets or bars must only be applied to leaf nodes. In the preceding example, it may be tempting to write


{{clade|style=width:auto;font-size:85%;line-height:100%;
|1=Leaf A
|bar2=midnightblue
|2={{clade
   |1=Leaf B
   |2=Leaf C
   }}
|3=Leaf D|bar3=midnightblue
}}

with the expectation that the bar will be to the right of the whole of the clade containing Leaf B and Leaf C. This does not produce the required output.

Specifying colours[уреди извор]

You can use any of the ways in which colours can be specified in HTML; e.g. the standard colour names, the three or six hex digit notations, such as #FC3 or #F3C630, or the rgb() notation.

Supplying text labels[уреди извор]

Text labels for each bracket/bar can be added using {{Barlabel}}. Accessibility guidelines require pages not to rely on colour alone, so it's particularly important to add labels if you have more than one bracket/bar and need to refer to them separately.

Debugging[уреди извор]

If your cladogram doesn't display brackets/bars as you expected, check that:

  • You understand the numbering system for the parameters barN, etc. The N must be the same as the number of the child within its clade. Thus typically you should write |N=label for leaf|barN=colour for bar, e.g. |2=[[Passeridae]]|bar2=midnightblue.
  • You have only attempted to apply brackets/bars to leaf nodes.

Limitations[уреди извор]

Label length[уреди извор]

Labels produced by |labelN=, where N is 1, 2, ..., can lead to poor layout of the resulting cladogram. (This does not apply to the text of leaves, i.e. text produced by |N=.) To avoid problems:

  • Labels should be kept as short as possible, ideally a single word
  • Any necessary spaces in labels should be represented as &nbsp; not as actual spaces.
  • Line breaks (i.e. <br/>) should not be used.

Browser differences[уреди извор]

Browser variation: left – most browsers; right – Safari

Cladograms are drawn by generating hidden tables. The horizontal and vertical lines making up the tree are actually the edges of table cells. The tables are then drawn by the browser or user agent using its internal algorithms. As these differ from browser to browser, the trees produced will not look the same on all browsers.

In particular, од јануари 2017 , there are two algorithms for laying out tables with empty cells, used by two groups of browsers. Most browsers now use the algorithm that produces cladograms like the two on the left in the diagram. Safari (under both MacOS and iOS) uses another algorithm, producing cladograms like the two on the right in the diagram.

No automated "fix" for these differences exists at present.

If there is a choice over the ordering of the terminal nodes (leaves) of the tree, cladograms look best in a Safari-like browser if as much branching as possible is at the bottom of the cladogram. Typically this is produced by arranging the terminal nodes downwards on the page in order of their evolutionary divergence. Compare the bottom row of the diagram to the top row.

Large cladograms[уреди извор]

There are limitations on the size and complexity of the cladograms which can be drawn:

  • A maximum of 17 children is allowed per node.

Inclusion in books[уреди извор]

There are many known bugs in rendering tables in the software which produces Wikipedia books; see the book tool feedback page. Од јули 2011

these result in the lines in cladograms not displaying in books.

Graphical summary[уреди извор]

Demo
Node structure
label1

leaf 1


label2

leaf 2


label3
label A

leaf A


label B

leaf B





 


Leaf styling
thicknessN

1 (default)



2



3



colorN

black (default)



red



blue



 #00ff00



stateN

solid (default)



dotted



dashed



none



double




node styling
thickness

I



J



K



color

A



B



C



state

X



Y



Z




newick
subtree

Leaf1 (redundant if newick1 set)



string

((lion,jaguar,leopard),((siberian,bengal)tiger,snow leopard))panthera



paraphyly example 


Geraniales



Myrtales



x

Crossosomatales




Picramniales




Sapindales




Huerteales




Brassicales



Malvales