Ултранационализам

Од Википедија — слободната енциклопедија
Прејди на прегледникот Прејди на пребарувањето

Ултранационализмот е „екстремен национализам што промовира интерес на една држава или народ над сите други“, или едноставно „екстремна посветеност на сопствената нација“.[1][2] Кога се комбинира со поимот национално препораѓање, ултранационализмот е клучна основа на фашизмот.[3] Некои ултранационалистички организации се означени како терористички движења од одредени нации.[4]

Според Јануш Бугајски, „во неговите најекстремни или развиени форми, ултра-национализмот наликува на фашизам, обележан со ксенофобично непочитување на другите нации, поддршка на авторитарните политички аранжмани што се однесуваат на тоталитаризмот и митскиот акцент на„ органското единство “помеѓу харизматичен лидер, партиски организациски аморфен тип на движење и нација“.[5]

Роџер Грифин тврдел дека ултранационализмот е суштински ксенофобичен и е познато дека се легитимира „преку длабоко митизирани наративи за минати културни или политички периоди со историска величина или стари резултати за да се реши против наводните непријатели“. Може исто така да се потпира на „вулгаризирани форми на физичка антропологија, генетика и евгеника за рационализирање на идеите за национална супериорност и судбина, за дегенерација и потхуманост“.[6]

Ултранационалистички политички партии[уреди | уреди извор]

Во моментов е застапен во националните законодавни тела[уреди | уреди извор]

Следните политички партии се карактеризираат како ултранационалистички.

Претходно застапена во националните законодавни тела[уреди | уреди извор]

Ултранационалистички политички организации[уреди | уреди извор]

Исто така види[уреди | уреди извор]

Наводи[уреди | уреди извор]

  1. Ultranationalism. Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
  2. Ultranationalism. Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
  3. Roger Griffin, "Nationalism" in Cyprian Blamires, ed., World Fascism: A Historical Encyclopedia, vol. 2 (Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2006), pp. 451–53.
  4. Pamuk, Humeyra. „U.S. Designates Russian Ultra-Nationalist Group as Terrorist Organization“. US News. Посетено на 9 October 2020.
  5. The Politics of National Minority Participation in Post-communist Europe. EastWest Institute. p.65. Section author - Janusz Bugajski. Book edited by Johnathan P.Stein. Published by M.E. Sharpe. Published in New York in 2000. Retrieved via Google Books.
  6. Blamires, Cyprian (2006). World fascism: a historical encyclopedia. стр. 452. ISBN 9781576079409.
  7. Katsikas, Stefanos (2011). „Negotiating Diplomacy in the New Europe: Foreign Policy in Post-Communist Bulgaria“. I.B. Tauris: 64. Наводот journal бара |journal= (help)
  8. Cyprus and the roadmap for peace - A critical interrogation of the conflict. P. 87. Edited by Michalis S. Michael and Yucel Vural. Chapter authors - Yucel Vural, Sertac Sonan, and Michalis S. Michael. Published by Edward Elgar Publishing in Cheltenham, UK. Published in 2018.
  9. „The 1619 Project and the far-right fear of history“. Washington Post. 20 August 2019. A leader of Germany's ultranationalist AfD party in 2017 bemoaned how the country's focus on atoning ...
  10. „Frankenstein pact puts AfD in coalition“. The Times. 23 July 2019. A married couple have run into trouble for forging the first local pact between Angela Merkel’s party and the ultranationalist Alternative for Germany (AfD) in defiance of the chancellor.
  11. „Greek elections: landslide victory for centre-right New Democracy party“. The Guardian. 7 July 2019. Smaller parties, such as the ultra-nationalist Greek Solution and leftist MeRA25, headed by Yanis Varoufakis, the former finance minister, were targeting younger Greeks.
  12. Mark Magnier (8 March 2012). „In India, battle continues over Hindu temple's riches - latimes“. Los Angeles Times. Articles.latimes.com. Посетено на 2015-12-02.
  13. „Can a left-wing alliance stop Salvini from forming a far-right government in Italy?“. France 24. 2019-08-15. Посетено на 2020-03-15.
  14. „Beautiful Harmony: Political Project Behind Japan's New Era Name – Analysis“. eurasia review. 16 July 2019. The shifting dynamics around the new era name (gengō 元号) offers an opportunity to understand how the domestic politics of the LDP’s project of ultranationalism is shaping a new Japan and a new form of nationalism.
  15. „Polish Interior Minister Issues Last-Minute Ban on Neo-Fascist Show of Force Outside Israeli Embassy in Warsaw“. The Algemeiner. 31 January 2018.
  16. „Ultranationalists Move to Slap Fines on Use of Foreign Words“. 21 February 2013.
  17. Van Herpen, Marcel H. (2015). Putin's Propaganda Machine: Soft Power and Russian Foreign Policy. Rowman & Littlefield. стр. 34.
  18. Ford, Peter (2018). „Serbian Radical Party surge may complicate reform“. Christian Science Monitor. Посетено на 17 December 2018.
  19. „Not Even a Prosperous Slovakia Is Immune to Doubts About the E.U.“. New York Times. 17 December 2016.
  20. Acha, Beatriz (6 January 2019). „No, no es un partido (neo)fascista“. Agenda Pública.
  21. Antón-Mellón, Joan (29 April 2019). „Vox. Del nacional-catolicismo al ultranacionalismo neoliberal“. Agenda Pública.
  22. „Danger on the Swiss Stock Exchange“. ING Group. 5 December 2018. The ultra-nationalist Swiss People's Party (SVP or UDC) - the most powerful political movement in the country - is campaigning against European agreements.
  23. Arman, Murat Necip (2007). „The Sources Of Banality In Transforming Turkish Nationalism“. CEU Political Science Journal (2): 133–151.
  24. Eissenstat, Howard. (November 2002). Anatolianism: The History of a Failed Metaphor of Turkish Nationalism. Middle East Studies Association Conference. Washington, D.C.
  25. Gocek, Fatma Muge (2014). Denial of Violence. Oxford University Press. стр. 402.
  26. „Svoboda: The rise of Ukraine's ultra-nationalists“. BBC. 25 December 2012. Посетено на 1 March 2015.
  27. „Khmer People's Revolutionary Party (KPRP)“. globalsecurity.org. Посетено на 28 May 2020.
  28. Tsatsanis, Emmanouil (2011), „Hellenism under siege: the national-populist logic of antiglobalization rhetoric in Greece“, Journal of Political Ideologies, 16 (1): 11–31, doi:10.1080/13569317.2011.540939, ...and far right-wing newspapers such as Alpha Ena, Eleytheros Kosmos, Eleytheri Ora and Stohos (the mouthpiece of ultra-nationalist group Chrysi Avgi).
  29. Ivarsflaten, Elisabeth (2006), Reputational Shields: Why Most Anti-Immigrant Parties Failed in Western Europe, 1980–2005 (PDF), Nuffield College, University of Oxford, стр. 15
  30. On the Road with Golden Dawn, Greece’s Ultra-Nationalist Party. Time. Published 31 October 2012. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
  31. Nippon Kaigi: The ultra-nationalistic group trying to restore the might of the Japanese Empire. ABC News Online. Author - Matthew Carney. Published 2 December 2015. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  32. „Abe's cabinet reshuffle“. East Asia Forum. 14 September 2019. Abe also rewarded right-wing politicians who are close to him — so-called ‘ideological friends’ who are being increasingly pushed to the forefront of his administration — such as LDP Executive Acting Secretary-General Koichi Hagiuda who was appointed Education Minister. As a member of the ultranationalist Nippon Kaigi (Japan Conference), which seeks to promote patriotic education, he can be considered ‘reliable’ as the government’s policy leader on national education.
  33. „Japanese minister becomes first in two years to visit Tokyo's controversial Yasukuni Shrine“. South China Morning Post. 17 October 2019. Посетено на 5 June 2020. Eto is serving in his first cabinet position and is a member of the ultranationalist Nippon Kaigi organisation, whose aims are to revise the “national consciousness” surrounding the prosecution of Japan’s war criminals and to change the nation’s pacifist constitution implemented after the war. The group also promotes “patriotic education”.
  34. Michal Kolmas, уред. (2019). National Identity and Japanese Revisionism. Routledge. ISBN 9781351334396. ... and foreign policy are rightwing revisionists organized in groups such as the ultranationalist Nippon Kaigi ...
  35. Ugo Dessì, уред. (2013). Japanese Religions and Globalization. Routledge. стр. 146. ISBN 9780415811705.
  36. „Japan combats rise in hate speech“. Al Jazeera. 30 November 2015. Посетено на 5 June 2020. ... and many don’t speak Korean or have ties to Korea. Even so, ultranationalist groups like Zaitokukai have singled them out and used Japan’s very liberal protection of speech to harass, intimidate and silence Zainichi with noisy street protests and attacks online, often anonymously.
  37. „Head of anti-foreigner group Zaitokukai to step down“. Japan Times. 30 November 2015. Посетено на 5 June 2020. The longtime chairman of the ultranationalist group Zaitokukai has announced he will step down and even give up his membership in the group, saying the move will eventually bolster the organization’s influence.
  38. https://stockholmcf.org/germany-seeks-to-ban-ultranationalist-turkish-grey-wolves-symbols/
  39. https://www.kurdistan24.net/en/news/24c5f251-70e1-482a-a81a-6644a2e9bc75
  40. https://www.duvarenglish.com/human-rights/2020/05/09/far-right-group-attempts-to-attack-grup-yorum-member-gokceks-grave-to-burn-his-body/
  41. Alessio, Dominic; Meredith, Kristen (2014). „Blackshirts for the Twenty–First Century? Fascism and the English Defence League“. Social Identities. 20 (1): 104–118. doi:10.1080/13504630.2013.843058.