Мирча Елијаде: Разлика помеѓу преработките

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Елијаде подоцна ќе рече дека самиот како соработник на ''Кувантул'' го објавувал Зилбер за да даде [[Марксизам|марксистичко]] видување на прашањата за кои се расправало во списанието.<ref name="tanasezilber2"/> Нивниот однос се влошил во 1935 година, кога последниот јавно го обвинил Елијаде дека ѝ служи како агент на тајната полиција ''[[Сигуранта Статулуи]]'' (Себастијан на таа изјава одговорил со обвинување дека самиот Зилбер е таен, но подоцна го повлекол обвинувањето).<ref name="tanasezilber2"/>
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===1930s political transition===
Eliade's articles before and after his adherence to the principles of the [[Iron Guard]] (or, as it was usually known at the time, the ''Legionary Movement''), beginning with his famous ''Itinerar spiritual'' ("Spiritual Itinerary", serialized in ''Cuvântul'' in 1927), center on several political ideals advocated by the far right.
They displayed his rejection of [[Liberalism and radicalism in Romania|liberalism]] and the [[Modernization|modernizing]] goals of the [[1848 Wallachian revolution]] (perceived as "an abstract apology of Mankind"<ref>Eliade, 1933, in Ornea, p. 32.</ref> and "ape-like imitation of [Western] Europe"),<ref>Eliade, 1936, in Ornea, p. 32.</ref> as well as for [[democracy]] itself (accusing it of "managing to crush all attempts at national renaissance",<ref name = "Eliade, 1937, in Ornea, p.53">Eliade, 1937, in Ornea, p. 53</ref> and later praising [[Benito Mussolini]]'s [[Italian fascism|Fascist Italy]] on the grounds that, according to Eliade, "[in Italy,] he who thinks for himself is promoted to the highest office in the shortest of times").<ref name="Eliade, 1937, in Ornea, p.53"/> He approved of an [[Ethnic nationalism|ethnic nationalist]] state centered on the Orthodox Church (in 1927, despite his still-vivid interest in [[Theosophy]], he recommended young [[intellectual]]s "the return to the Church"),<ref>Eliade, 1927, in Ornea, p. 147</ref> which he opposed to, among others, the [[Secularism|secular]] nationalism of [[Constantin Rădulescu-Motru]];<ref>Eliade, 1935, in Ornea, p. 128.</ref> referring to this particular ideal as "Romanianism", Eliade was, in 1934, still viewing it as "neither fascism, nor [[chauvinism]]".<ref>Eliade, 1934, in Ornea, p. 136</ref>
Eliade was especially dissatisfied with the incidence of unemployment among intellectuals, whose careers in state-financed institutions had been rendered uncertain by the [[Great Depression]].<ref>Eliade, 1933, in Ornea, pp. 178, 186.</ref>
In 1936, Eliade was the focus of a campaign in the far right press, being targeted for having authored "[[pornography]]" in his ''[[Domnișoara Christina]]'' and ''Isabel și apele diavolului''; similar accusations were aimed at other cultural figures, including [[Tudor Arghezi]] and [[Geo Bogza]].<ref>Ornea, pp. 445–55.</ref> Assessments of Eliade's work were in sharp contrast to one another: also in 1936, Eliade accepted an award from the [[Romanian Writers' Society]], of which he had been a member since 1934.<ref>Nastasă, pp. 525–26.</ref> In summer 1937, through an official decision which came as a result of the accusations, and despite student protests, he was stripped of his position at the University.<ref>Nastasă, p. 86; Ornea, pp. 452–53; Şora, in Handoca</ref>
Eliade decided to sue the [[Minister of Education, Research and Youth (Romania)|Ministry of Education]], asking for a symbolic compensation of 1 [[Romanian leu|leu]].<ref name= "Ornea, p.453">Ornea, p. 453.</ref> He won the trial, and regained his position as Nae Ionescu's assistant.<ref name="Ornea, p.453" />
Nevertheless, by 1937, he gave his intellectual support to the Iron Guard, in which he saw "a [[Christianity|Christian]] revolution aimed at creating a new Romania",<ref name="Eliade, 1937, in Ornea, p.203">Eliade, 1937, in Ornea, p. 203</ref> and a group able "to reconcile Romania with God".<ref name = "Eliade, 1937, in Ornea, p.203" /> His articles of the time, published in Iron Guard papers such as ''Sfarmă Piatră'' and ''[[Buna Vestire]]'', contain ample praises of the movement's leaders ([[Corneliu Zelea Codreanu]], [[Ion Moţa]], [[Vasile Marin]], and [[Gheorghe Cantacuzino-Grănicerul]]).<ref>Ornea, p.202–206</ref><ref name="oscaderea">[[Ovidiu Şimonca]], [http://www.observatorcultural.ro/informatiiarticol.phtml?xid=14834 "Mircea Eliade şi 'căderea în lume'" ("Mircea Eliade and 'the Descent into the World'")], review of Florin Ţurcanu, ''Mircea Eliade. Le prisonnier de l'histoire'' ("Mircea Eliade. The Prisoner of History"), in ''[[Observator Cultural]]'', Nr. 305, January–February 2006; retrieved July 16, 2007 {{ro icon}}</ref> The transition he went through was similar to that of his fellow generation members and close collaborators—among the notable exceptions to this rule were [[Petru Comarnescu]], sociologist [[Henri H. Stahl]] and future dramatist [[Eugène Ionesco]], as well as Sebastian.<ref>Ornea, p.180</ref>
He eventually enrolled in the ''Totul pentru Țară'' ("Everything for the Fatherland" Party), the political expression of the Iron Guard,<ref name="smihai"/><ref name="Ornea, p.207">Ornea, p.207</ref> and contributed to its [[Romanian general election, 1937|1937 electoral campaign]] in [[Prahova County]]—as indicated by his inclusion on a list of party members with [[Counties of Romania|county]]-level responsibilities (published in ''Buna Vestire'').<ref name="Ornea, p.207"/>
===Internment and diplomatic service===
The stance taken by Eliade resulted in his arrest on July 14, 1938 after a crackdown on the Iron Guard authorized by [[King of Romania|King]] [[Carol II of Romania|Carol II]]. At the time of his arrest, he had just interrupted a column on ''Provincia și legionarismul'' ("The Province and Legionary Ideology") in ''[[Vremea]]'', having been singled out by [[List of Prime Ministers of Romania|Prime Minister]] [[Armand Călinescu]] as an author of Iron Guard [[propaganda]].<ref>Ornea, p.208–209</ref>
Eliade was kept for three weeks in a cell at the ''[[Siguranţa Statului]]'' Headquarters, in an attempt to have him sign a "declaration of dissociation" with the Iron Guard, but he refused to do so.<ref name="Ornea, p.209">Ornea, p.209</ref> In the first week of August he was transferred to a makeshift camp at [[Miercurea-Ciuc]]. When Eliade began coughing blood in October 1938, he was taken to a clinic in [[Moroeni]].<ref name="Ornea, p.209"/> Eliade was simply released on November 12, and subsequently spent his time writing his play ''Iphigenia'' (also known as ''Ifigenia'').<ref name="aoamniotica"/> In April 1940, with the help of [[Alexandru Rosetti]], became the Cultural Attaché to the [[United Kingdom]], a posting cut short when Romanian-British foreign relations were broken.<ref name="Ornea, p.209"/>
After leaving London he was assigned the office of Counsel and [[Press secretary|Press Officer]] (later Cultural Attaché) to the Romanian Embassy in [[Portugal]],<ref name="pcommare"/><ref>''Biografie'', in Handoca; Nastasă, p.442</ref><ref name="cavrcitim">[[Cătălin Avramescu]], [http://www.dilemaveche.ro/index.php?nr=135&cmd=articol&id=3508 "Citim una, înţelegem alta" ("We Read One Thing and Understand Another")], in ''[[Dilema Veche]]'', Vol. III, August 2006; retrieved January 28, 2008 {{ro icon}}</ref><ref name="mlimpost">[[Michael Löwy]], [http://assr.revues.org/document3128.html Review of Daniel Dubuisson, ''Impostures et pseudo-science. L'œuvre de Mircea Eliade''], in [http://assr.revues.org/ ''Archives de Science Sociale et Religion''], 132 (2005) {{fr icon}}; retrieved January 22, 2008</ref> where he was kept on as diplomat by the [[National Legionary State]] (the Iron Guard government) and, ultimately, by [[Ion Antonescu]]'s regime. His office involved disseminating propaganda in favor of the Romanian state.<ref name="pcommare"/> In February 1941, weeks after the bloody [[Legionnaires' rebellion and Bucharest pogrom|Legionary Rebellion]] was crushed by Antonescu, ''Iphigenia'' was staged by the [[National Theater Bucharest]]—the play soon raised doubts that it owed inspiration to the Iron Guard's ideology, and even that its inclusion in the program was a Legionary attempt at subversion.<ref name="aoamniotica"/>
In 1942, Eliade authored a volume in praise of the ''[[Estado Novo (Portugal)|Estado Novo]]'', established in Portugal by [[António de Oliveira Salazar]],<ref name="mlimpost"/><ref name="mesalaz">Eliade, ''Salazar'', in "Eliade despre Salazar" ("Eliade on Salazar"), ''[[Evenimentul Zilei]]'', October 13, 2002</ref><ref>Ellwood, p.90</ref> claiming that "The Salazarian state, a Christian and [[Totalitarianism|totalitarian]] one, is first and foremost based on love".<ref name="mesalaz"/> On July 7 of the same year, he was received by Salazar himself, who assigned Eliade the task of warning Antonescu to withdraw the [[Romanian Army]] from the [[Eastern Front (World War II)|Eastern Front]] ("[In his place], I would not be grinding it in [[Russia]]").<ref name="in Handoca">Eliade, in Handoca</ref> Eliade also claimed that such contacts with the leader of a neutral country had made him the target for [[Gestapo]] surveillance, but that he had managed to communicate Salazar's advice to [[Mihai Antonescu]], Romania's [[List of Romanian Foreign Ministers|Foreign Minister]].<ref name="rossfriesian"/><ref name="in Handoca"/>
In autumn 1943, he traveled to [[German occupation of France during World War II|occupied France]], where he rejoined [[Emil Cioran]], also meeting with scholar [[Georges Dumézil]] and the [[Collaborationism|collaborationist]] writer [[Paul Morand]].<ref name="pcommare"/> At the same time, he applied for a position of lecturer at the [[University of Bucharest]], but withdrew from the race, leaving [[Constantin Noica]] and [[Ion Zamfirescu]] to dispute the position, in front of a panel of academics comprising [[Lucian Blaga]] and [[Dimitrie Gusti]] (Zamfirescu's eventual selection, going against Blaga's recommendation, was to be the topic of a controversy).<ref>Nastasă, p.442–443</ref> In his private notes, Eliade wrote that he took no further interest in the office, because his visits abroad had convinced him that he had "something great to say", and that he could not function within the confines of "a minor culture".<ref name="pcommare"/> Also during the war, Eliade traveled to [[Berlin]], where he met and conversed with controversial political theorist [[Carl Schmitt]],<ref name="vilasanjpaseo"/><ref name="pcommare"/> and frequently visited [[Spain under Franco|Francoist Spain]], where he notably attended the 1944 Lusitano-Spanish scientific congress in [[Córdoba, Spain|Córdoba]].<ref name="pcommare"/><ref name="jgspania">Joaquín Garrigós, [http://www.dilemaveche.ro/index.php?nr=191&cmd=articol&id=6740 "Pasiunea lui Mircea Eliade pentru Spania" ("Mircea Eliade's Passion for Spain")], in ''[[Dilema Veche]]'', Vol. IV, October 2007; retrieved January 21, 2008 {{ro icon}}</ref><ref name="aoopium">[[Andrei Oişteanu]], [http://www.revista22.ro/html/index.php?nr=2007-05-11&art=3719 "Mircea Eliade, de la opium la amfetamine" ("Mircea Eliade, from Opium to Amphetamines")], in ''[[22 (magazine)|22]]'', Nr. 896, May 2007; retrieved January 17, 2008 {{ro icon}}</ref> It was during his trips to Spain that Eliade met philosophers [[José Ortega y Gasset]] and [[Eugeni d'Ors]]. He maintained a friendship with d'Ors, and met him again on several occasions after the war.<ref name="jgspania"/>
Nina Eliade fell ill with [[uterine cancer]] and died during their stay in [[Lisbon]], in late 1944. As the widower later wrote, the disease was probably caused by an [[abortion]] procedure she had undergone at an early stage of their relationship.<ref name="pcommare"/> He came to suffer with [[clinical depression]], which increased as Romania and her [[Axis Powers|Axis]] allies suffered major defeats on the Eastern Front.<ref name="pcommare"/><ref name="aoopium"/> Contemplating a return to Romania as a soldier or a [[monk]],<ref name="pcommare"/> he was on a continuous search for effective [[antidepressant]]s, medicating himself with [[passion flower]] extract, and, eventually, with [[methamphetamine]].<ref name="aoopium"/> This was probably not his first experience with drugs: vague mentions in his notebooks have been read as indication that Mircea Eliade was taking [[opium]] during his travels to [[Calcutta]].<ref name="aoopium"/> Later, discussing the works of [[Aldous Huxley]], Eliade wrote that the British author's use of [[mescaline]] as a source of inspiration had something in common with his own experience, indicating 1945 as a date of reference and adding that it was "needless to explain why that is".<ref name="aoopium"/>