Паладиум

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Паладиум  (46Pd)
Palladium (46 Pd).jpg
Општи својства
Име и симболпаладиум (Pd)
Изгледсребрено бела
Паладиумот во периодниот систем
Водород (двоатомски неметал)
Хелиум (благороден гас)
Литиум (алкален метал)
Берилиум (земноалкален метал)
Бор (металоид)
Јаглерод (повеќеатомски неметал)
Азот (двоатомски неметал)
Кислород (двоатомски неметал)
Флуор (двоатомски неметал)
Неон (благороден гас)
Натриум (алкален метал)
Магнезиум (земноалкален метал)
Алуминиум (слаб метал)
Силициум (металоид)
Фосфор (повеќеатомски неметал)
Сулфур (повеќеатомски неметал)
Хлор (двоатомски неметал)
Аргон (благороден гас)
Калиум (алкален метал)
Калциум (земноалкален метал)
Скандиум (преоден метал)
Титан (преоден метал)
Ванадиум (преоден метал)
Хром (преоден метал)
Манган (преоден метал)
Железо (преоден метал)
Кобалт (преоден метал)
Никел (преоден метал)
Бакар (преоден метал)
Цинк (преоден метал)
Галиум (слаб метал)
Германиум (металоид)
Арсен (металоид)
Селен (повеќеатомски неметал)
Бром (двоатомски неметал)
Криптон (благороден гас)
Рубидиум (алкален метал)
Стронциум (земноалкален метал)
Итриум (преоден метал)
Циркониум (преоден метал)
Ниобиум (преоден метал)
Молибден (преоден метал)
Технициум (преоден метал)
Рутениум (преоден метал)
Родиум (преоден метал)
Паладиум (преоден метал)
Сребро (преоден метал)
Кадмиум (преоден метал)
Индиум (слаб метал)
Калај (слаб метал)
Антимон (металоид)
Телур (металоид)
Јод (двоатомски неметал)
Ксенон (благороден гас)
Цезиум (алкален метал)
Бариум (земноалкален метал)
Лантан (лантаноид)
Цериум (лантаноид)
Празеодиум (лантаноид)
Неодиум (лантаноид)
Прометиум (лантаноид)
Самариум (лантаноид)
Европиум (лантаноид)
Гадолиниум (лантаноид)
Тербиум (лантаноид)
Диспрозиум (лантаноид)
Холмиум (лантаноид)
Ербиум (лантаноид)
Тулиум (лантаноид)
Итербиум (лантаноид)
Лутециум (лантаноид)
Хафниум (преоден метал)
Тантал (преоден метал)
Волфрам (преоден метал)
Рениум (преоден метал)
Осмиум (преоден метал)
Иридиум (преоден метал)
Платина (преоден метал)
Злато (преоден метал)
Жива (преоден метал)
Талиум (слаб метал)
Олово (слаб метал)
Бизмут (слаб метал)
Полониум (слаб метал)
Астат (металоид)
Радон (благороден гас)
Франциум (алкален метал)
Радиум (земноалкален метал)
Актиниум (актиноид)
Ториум (актиноид)
Протактиниум (актиноид)
Ураниум (актиноид)
Нептуниум (актиноид)
Плутониум (актиноид)
Америциум (актиноид)
Кириум (актиноид)
Берклиум (актиноид)
Калифорниум (актиноид)
Ајнштајниум (актиноид)
Фермиум (актиноид)
Менделевиум (актиноид)
Нобелиум (актиноид)
Лоренциум (актиноид)
Радерфордиум (преоден метал)
Дубниум (преоден метал)
Сиборгиум (преоден метал)
Бориум (преоден метал)
Хасиум (преоден метал)
Мајтнериум (непознати хемиски својства)
Дармштатиум (непознати хемиски својства)
Рентгениум (непознати хемиски својства)
Копернициум (преоден метал)
Нихониум (непознати хемиски својства)
Флеровиум (слаб метал)
Московиум (непознати хемиски својства)
Ливермориум (непознати хемиски својства)
Тенесин (непознати хемиски својства)
Оганесон (непознати хемиски својства)
Ni

Pd

Pt
родиумпаладиумсребро
Атомски број46
Стандардна атомска тежина (±) (Ar)106,42(1)[1]
Категорија  преоден метал
Група и блокгрупа 10, d-блок
ПериодаV периода
Електронска конфигурација[Kr] 4d10
по обвивка
2, 8, 18, 18
Физички својства
Фазацврста
Точка на топење1.828,05 K ​(1.554,9 °C)
Точка на вриење3.236 K ​(2.963 °C)
Густина близу с.т.12,023 г/см3
кога е течен, при т.т.10,38 г/см3
Топлина на топење16,74 kJ/mol
Топлина на испарување358 kJ/mol
Моларен топлински капацитет25,98 J/(mol·K)
парен притисок
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
при T (K) 1.721 1.897 2.117 2.395 2.753 3.234
Атомски својства
Оксидациони степени0, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +6 ​(благ базичен оксид)
ЕлектронегативностПолингова скала: 2,2
Енергии на јонизацијаI: 804,4 kJ/mol
II: 1.870 kJ/mol
II: 3.177 kJ/mol
Атомски полупречникемпириски: 137 пм
Ковалентен полупречник139±6 пм
Ван дер Валсов полупречник163 пм
Color lines in a spectral range
Спектрални линии на паладиум
Разни податоци
Кристална структурастраноцентрична коцкеста (сцк)
Кристалната структура на паладиумот
Брзина на звукот тенка прачка3.070 м/с (при 20 °C)
Топлинско ширење11,8 µм/(m·K) (при 25 °C)
Топлинска спроводливост71,8 W/(m·K)
Електрична отпорност105,4 nΩ·m (при 20 °C)
Магнетно подредувањепарамагнетно[2]
Модул на растегливост121 GPa
Модул на смолкнување44 GPa
Модул на збивливост180 GPa
Поасонов сооднос0,39
Мосова тврдост4,75
Викерсова тврдост400–600 MPa
Бринелова тврдост320–610 MPa
CAS-број7440-05-3
Историја
Наречен поСпоред астероидот Палада, кој е именуван по Палада Атена
Откриен и првпат издвоенВилијам Хајд Воластон (1803)
Најстабилни изотопи
Главна статија: Изотопи на паладиумот
изо ПЗ полураспад РР РЕ (MeV) РП
100Pd веш 3,63d ε 100Rh
γ 0,084, 0,074,
0,126
102Pd 1,02% (β+β+) 1,1720 102Ru
103Pd веш 16,991d ε 103Rh
104Pd 11,14% (СФ) <18,969
105Pd 22,33% (СФ) <18,247
106Pd 27,33% (СФ) <16,806
107Pd траги 6,5×106 y β 0,033 107Ag
108Pd 26,46% (СФ) <16,102
110Pd 11,72% >6×1017y ββ 1,9997 110Cd
Режимите на распад во загради се предвидени, но сè уште не се забележани
| наводи | Википодатоци


Паладиум(Pd, лат. palladium) е хемиски елемент со симбол Pd атомски број 46 од VIIIB група. Тој е редок метал , со сребреникаво бела боја. Бил откриен во 1803 година од страна на Вилијам Хјуд Волстон во Лондон. Тој го крстил металот според астеоридот Палас. Металите: Паладиум, Платина, Родиум, Рутениум, Иридиум и Осмиум формират група елементи која е наречена платинова група. Тие имаат слични хемиски својства. Паладиумот има најниска точка на топење од групата.

Повеќе од половина од достапната количина на паладиумот во светот (и неговиот конгенист платина) се користи за катализатори, кој претвораат до 90% од штетните гасови во издувните системи на автомобилите во помалку штетни супстанци (од штетните: хидрокарбонати (hydrocarbons), јаглерод моноксид, азот диоксид; во помалку штетните: азот, јаглерод диоксид и водена пареа). Паладиумот, исто така, се користи во електроника, стоматологија, медицина, прочистување (пјурификација) на водород (во производство), хемиски апликации, третман на подземни води и накит. Паладиумот е клучна компонента во горивни ќелии, во кои се одвива реакција помеѓу водород и кислород за да се добие струја, топлина и вода.

Рудните резерви на платинум и други метали од платиновата група се ретки. Најголемите резерви можат да се најдат во норитскиот појас од комплексот Бушвелд Игнеус (Igneous Complex) распространет во Трансваловиот басен (Transvaal Basin) во Јужно Афричка Република; комплексот Стилвотер (Stillwater Complex) во Монтана, САД; Базенот Садбери (Sudbury Basin) и округот Тандер Беј (Thunder Bay District) во Онтарио, Канада; и комплексот Норилск во Русија. Паладиумот, исто така, може да се добие преку рециклирање искористени катализатори. Поради широката примена и ограничените резерви има голем интерес за инвестирање.

Каратеристики[уреди | уреди извор]

Паладиумот припага на десетата група во периодниот систем. Конфигурацијата во последните електонски орбитали е во соогласност со хундово правило. Електроните од Ѕ(С) орбиталата се придрижуваат до D(Д) пополнувајки ја, бидејки имаат помала енергија.

Z Елемент Број на електрони/слоеви
28 никел 2, 8, 16, 2 (или 2, 8, 17, 1)
46 паладиум 2, 8, 18, 18
78 платина 2, 8, 18, 32, 17, 1
110 дармштатиум 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 16, 2 (предвидено)

Паладиумот е мек сребрено бел метал кој наликува на платинум. Од платиновата група на метали паладиумот има најмала густина и најниска точка на топење.

It is soft and ductile when annealed and is greatly increased in strength and hardness when cold-worked. Palladium dissolves slowly in concentrated nitric acid, in hot, concentrated sulfuric acid, and when finely ground, in hydrochloric acid.[3] It dissolves readily at room temperature in aqua regia.

Паладиумот не реагира сокислород на стандардна температура (кога ке се изложи на воздух, не потемнува и не го губи сјајот). Кога паладиум ќе се загрее на тепература од 800 °C ќе се создаде слој од паладиум(II) оксид(PdO). Доколку е изложен на влажен воздух кој содржи сулфур може делумно да го изгуби сјајот(кородира).[4]

Palladium films with defects produced by alpha particle bombardment at low temperature exhibit superconductivity having Tc=3.2 K.[5]

Изотопи[уреди | уреди извор]

Crystal Clear app xmag.svg Главна статија: „Изотопи на паладиумот.

Во природата може да се најдат седум изотопи од паладиум, од кој шест се стабилни изотопи. (Naturally occurring palladium is composed of seven isotopes, six of which are stable.) Најзастапените радиоизотопи (радиоактивни изотопи) се: 107Pd со период на полу распад од 6.5 милиони години (застапен во природата)(found in nature), 103Pd со 17 денови и 100Pd со 3.63 денови. Релативна атомска маса на други осумнаесет изотопи се движи помеѓу 90.94948(64) u (91Pd) to 122.93426(64) u (123Pd).[6] Периодот на полу распад на овие изотопи е помал од триесет минути. Исклучок се: 101Pd (период на полу распад: 8.47 часа), 109Pd (период на полу распад: 13.7 часа), и 112Pd (период на полу распад: 21 часа).[7]

For isotopes with atomic mass unit values less than that of the most abundant stable isotope, 106Pd, the primary decay mode is electron capture with the primary decay product being rhodium. The primary mode of decay for those isotopes of Pd with atomic mass greater than 106 is beta decay with the primary product of this decay being silver.[7]

Radiogenic 107Ag is a decay product of 107Pd and was first discovered in 1978[8] in the Santa Clara[9] meteorite of 1976. The discoverers suggest that the coalescence and differentiation of iron-cored small planets may have occurred 10 million years after a nucleosynthetic event. 107Pd versus Ag correlations observed in bodies, which have been melted since accretion of the solar system, must reflect the presence of short-lived nuclides in the early solar system.[10]

Соединенија[уреди | уреди извор]

Palladium compounds primarily exist in the 0 and +2 oxidation state. Other less common states are also recognized. Generally the compounds of palladium are more similar to those of platinum than those of any other element.

Alpha-palladium(II)-chloride-xtal-3D-balls.png
Pd6Cl12-from-xtal-1996-CM-3D-ellipsoids.png
Structure of α-PdCl2
Structure of β-PdCl2

Паладиум (II)[уреди | уреди извор]

Palladium(II) chloride is the principal starting material for other palladium compounds. It arises by the reaction of palladium with chlorine. It is used to prepare heterogeneous palladium catalysts such as palladium on barium sulfate, palladium on carbon, and palladium chloride on carbon.[11] Solutions of PdCl2 in nitric acid react with acetic acid to give palladium(II) acetate, also a versatile reagent. PdCl2 reacts with ligands (L) to give square planar complexes of the type PdCl2L2. One example of such complexes is the benzonitrile derivative PdX2(PhCN)2.[12][13]

PdCl2 + 2 L → PdCl2L2 (L = PhCN, PPh3, NH3, etc)

The complex bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II) dichloride is a useful catalyst.[14]

Пладиум (0)[уреди | уреди извор]

Palladium forms a range of zerovalent complexes with the formula PdL4, PdL3 and PdL2. For example, reduction of a mixture of PdCl2(PPh3)2 and PPh3 gives tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0):[15]

2 PdCl2(PPh3)2 + 4 PPh3 + 5 N2H4 → 2 Pd(PPh3)4 + N2 + 4 N2H5+Cl

Another major palladium(0) complex, tris(dibenzylideneacetone)dipalladium(0) (Pd2(dba)3), is prepared by reducing sodium tetrachloropalladate in the presence of dibenzylideneacetone.[16]

Palladium(0), as well as palladium(II), are catalysts in coupling reactions, as has been recognized by the 2010 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Richard F. Heck, Ei-ichi Negishi, and Akira Suzuki. Such reactions are widely practiced for the synthesis of fine chemicals. Prominent coupling reactions include the Heck, Suzuki, Sonogashira coupling, Stille reactions, and the Kumada coupling. Palladium(II) acetate, tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) (Pd(PPh3)4, and tris(dibenzylideneacetone)dipalladium(0) (Pd2(dba)3) serve either as catalysts or precatalysts.[17]

Други оксидациони состојби[уреди | уреди извор]

Although Pd(IV) compounds are comparatively rare, one example is sodium hexachloropalladate(IV), Na2[PdCl6]. A few compounds of palladium(III) are also known.[18] Palladium(VI) was claimed in 2002,[19][20] but subsequently disproven.[21][22]

Mixed valence palladium complexes exist, e.g. Pd4(CO)4(OAc)4Pd(acac)2 forms an infinite Pd chain structure, with alternatively interconnected Pd4(CO)4(OAc)4 and Pd(acac)2 units.[23]

Историја[уреди | уреди извор]

Вилијам Хјуд Волстон првпат го забележал неговото откритие на нов благороден метал во неговиот лабаратриски бележник во јули 1802.

William Hyde Wollaston noted the discovery of a new noble metal in July 1802 in his lab-book and named it palladium in August of the same year. Wollaston purified a quantity of the material and offered it, without naming the discoverer, in a small shop in Soho in April 1803. After harsh criticism from Richard Chenevix that palladium is an alloy of platinum and mercury, Wollaston anonymously offered a reward of £20 for 20 grains of synthetic palladium alloy.[24] Chenevix received the Copley Medal in 1803 after he published his experiments on palladium. Wollaston published the discovery of rhodium in 1804 and mentions some of his work on palladium.[25][26] He disclosed that he was the discoverer of palladium in a publication in 1805.[24][27]

It was named by Wollaston in 1802 after the asteroid 2 Pallas, which had been discovered two months earlier.[3] Wollaston found palladium in crude platinum ore from South America by dissolving the ore in aqua regia, neutralizing the solution with sodium hydroxide, and precipitating platinum as ammonium chloroplatinate with ammonium chloride. He added mercuric cyanide to form the compound palladium(II) cyanide, which was heated to extract palladium metal.[25]

Palladium chloride was at one time prescribed as a tuberculosis treatment at the rate of 0.065 g per day (approximately one milligram per kilogram of body weight). This treatment had many negative side-effects, и подоцна бил заменет со поефикасни лиекови. and was later replaced by more effective drugs.[28]

Главнината од паладиумот се користи за изработка катализатори во автомобилската индустрија. [29] Непосредно пред 2000 година, извозот на паладиум од страна на Русија повеќекратно бил попречен и не бил навремен. Поради политички причини, извозната квота не била испорачана на време.[30] Како резултат на ова се јавила паника на пазарот која предизвикала цената на паладиумот да достигне $1340 (долари) за тројна унца (дотогаш највисока цена по тројна унца). [31] Во тој период автомобилаката компанија Форд (Ford Motor Company), стравувајки дека непостојаниот дотур на паладиум ќе го наруши произвотството, натрупува залихи. поради падот на цените во 2001, Форд има изгубено една милијарда долари.[32]

World demand for palladium increased from 100 tons in 1990 to nearly 300 tons in 2000. The global production of palladium from mines was 222 tonnes in 2006 according to the United States Geological Survey.[33] Many were concerned about a steady supply of palladium in the wake of Russia's military maneuvers in Ukraine, partly as sanctions could hamper Russian palladium exports; any restrictions on Russian palladium exports would exacerbate what is already expected to be a large palladium deficit in 2014.[34] Those concerns pushed palladium prices to their highest level since 2001.[35] In September 2014 they soared above the $900 per ounce mark. In 2016 however palladium cost around $614 per ounce as Russia managed to maintain stable supplies.[36] In January 2019 palladium futures climbed past $1,344 per ounce for the first time on record, mainly due to the strong demand from the automotive industry.[37]

Присуство[уреди | уреди извор]

Palladium output in 2005

As overall mine production of palladium reached 208,000 kilograms in 2016, Russia was the top producer with 82,000 kilograms, followed by South Africa, Canada and the U.S.[38] Russia's company Norilsk Nickel ranks first among the largest palladium producers globally, it accounts for 39% of the world’s production.[39]

Palladium can be found as a free metal alloyed with gold and other platinum-group metals in placer deposits of the Ural Mountains, Australia, Ethiopia, North and South America. For the production of palladium, these deposits play only a minor role. The most important commercial sources are nickel-copper deposits found in the Sudbury Basin, Ontario, and the Norilsk–Talnakh deposits in Siberia. The other large deposit is the Merensky Reef platinum group metals deposit within the Bushveld Igneous Complex South Africa. The Stillwater igneous complex of Montana and the Roby zone ore body of the Lac des Îles igneous complex of Ontario are the two other sources of palladium in Canada and the United States.[33][40] Palladium is found in the rare minerals cooperite[41] and polarite.[42] Many more Pd minerals are known, but all of them are very rare.[43]

Palladium is also produced in nuclear fission reactors and can be extracted from spent nuclear fuel (see synthesis of precious metals), though this source for palladium is not used. None of the existing nuclear reprocessing facilities are equipped to extract palladium from the high-level radioactive waste.[44]

Примена[уреди | уреди извор]

The Soviet 25-rouble commemorative palladium coin is a rare example of the monetary usage of palladium.

The largest use of palladium today is in catalytic converters.[45] Palladium is also used in jewelry, dentistry,[45][46] watch making, blood sugar test strips, aircraft spark plugs, surgical instruments, and electrical contacts.[47] Palladium is also used to make professional transverse (concert or classical) flutes.[48] As a commodity, palladium bullion has ISO currency codes of XPD and 964. Palladium is one of only four metals to have such codes, the others being gold, silver and platinum.[49] Because it absorbs hydrogen, palladium is a key component of the controversial cold fusion experiments that began in 1989.

Катализа[уреди | уреди извор]

When it is finely divided, as with palladium on carbon, palladium forms a versatile catalyst; it speeds heterogeneous catalytic processes like hydrogenation, dehydrogenation, and petroleum cracking. Palladium is also essential to the Lindlar catalyst, also called Lindlar's Palladium.[50] A large number of carbon–carbon bonding reactions in organic chemistry are facilitated by palladium compound catalysts. For example:

(See palladium compounds and palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions.)

When dispersed on conductive materials, palladium is an excellent electrocatalyst for oxidation of primary alcohols in alkaline media.[51] Palladium is also a versatile metal for homogeneous catalysis, used in combination with a broad variety of ligands for highly selective chemical transformations.

In 2010, palladium-catalysed organic reactions were recognized by the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. A 2008 study showed that palladium is an effective catalyst for carbon-fluoride bonds.[52]

Catalytic cycle for Kumada cross coupling reaction, which is widely used in the synthesis of fine chemicals.

Palladium catalysis is primarily employed in organic chemistry and industrial applications, although its use is growing as a tool for synthetic biology; in 2017, effective in vivo catalytic activity of palladium nanoparticles was demonstrated in mammals to treat disease.[53]

Електроника[уреди | уреди извор]

The second greatest application of palladium in electronics is in multilayer ceramic capacitors[54] in which palladium (and palladium-silver alloy) is used for electrodes.[45] Palladium (sometimes alloyed with nickel) is used for component and connector plating in consumer electronics[55][56] and in soldering materials. The electronic sector consumed 1.07 million troy ounces (33.2 tonnes) of palladium in 2006, according to a Johnson Matthey report.[57]

Технологија[уреди | уреди извор]

Hydrogen easily diffuses through heated palladium,[3] and membrane reactors with Pd membranes are used in the production of high purity hydrogen.[58] Palladium is used in palladium-hydrogen electrodes in electrochemical studies. Palladium(II) chloride readily catalyzes carbon monoxide gas to carbon dioxide and is useful in carbon monoxide detectors.[59]

Складирање на водород[уреди | уреди извор]

Crystal Clear app xmag.svg Главна статија: „Palladium hydride.

Palladium readily absorbs hydrogen at room temperatures, forming palladium hydride PdHx with x less than 1.[60] While this property is common to many transition metals, palladium has a uniquely high absorption capacity and does not lose its ductility until x approaches 1.[61] This property has been investigated in designing an efficient, inexpensive, and safe hydrogen fuel storage medium, though palladium itself is currently prohibitively expensive for this purpose.[62] The content of hydrogen in palladium can be linked to magnetic susceptibility, which decreases with the increase of hydrogen and becomes zero for PdH0.62. At any higher ratio, the solid solution becomes diamagnetic.[63]

Стоматологија[уреди | уреди извор]

Palladium is used in small amounts (about 0.5%) in some alloys of dental amalgam to decrease corrosion and increase the metallic lustre of the final restoration.[64]

Накит[уреди | уреди извор]

Palladium has been used as a precious metal in jewelry since 1939 as an alternative to platinum in the alloys called "white gold", where the naturally white color of palladium does not require rhodium plating. Palladium is much less dense than platinum. Similar to gold, palladium can be beaten into leaf as thin as 100 nm (1250,000 in).[3] Unlike platinum, palladium may discolor at temperatures above 400 °C (752 °F);[65] it is relatively brittle.

Prior to 2004, the principal use of palladium in jewelry was the manufacture of white gold. Palladium is one of the three most popular alloying metals in white gold (nickel and silver can also be used).[45] Palladium-gold is more expensive than nickel-gold, but seldom causes allergic reactions (though certain cross-allergies with nickel may occur).[66]

When platinum became a strategic resource during World War II, many jewelry bands were made out of palladium. Palladium was little used in jewelry because of the technical difficulty of casting. With the casting problem resolved the use of palladium in jewelry increased, originally because platinum increased in price while the price of palladium decreased.[67] In early 2004, when gold and platinum prices rose steeply, China began fabricating volumes of palladium jewelry, consuming 37 tonnes in 2005. Subsequent changes in the relative price of platinum lowered demand for palladium to 17.4 tonnes in 2009.[68][69] Demand for palladium as a catalyst has increased the price of palladium to about 50% higher than that of platinum in January 2019.[70]

In January 2010, hallmarks for palladium were introduced by assay offices in the United Kingdom, and hallmarking became mandatory for all jewelry advertising pure or alloyed palladium. Articles can be marked as 500, 950, or 999 parts of palladium per thousand of the alloy.

Fountain pen nibs made from gold are sometimes plated with palladium when a silver (rather than gold) appearance is desired. Sheaffer has used palladium plating for decades, either as an accent on otherwise gold nibs or covering the gold completely.

Фотографија[уреди | уреди извор]

In the platinotype printing process, photographers make fine-art black-and-white prints using platinum or palladium salts. Often used with platinum, palladium provides an alternative to silver.[71]

Токсичност[уреди | уреди извор]

Паладиум
Штетност
GHS-пиктограми Извичникот е ознака припадник на светски хармонизираниот систем за класификација и ознака на хемикалии
GHS-сигнален збор Предупредување
H317
P261, P273, P280, P302+352, P321, P333+313, P363, P501[72]
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
0
0
0
 
Освен каде што е поинаку назначено, податоците се однесуваат за материјалите во нивната стандардна состојба (при 25 ° C, 100 kPa)
Наводи

Паладиумот е метал со ниска токсичност. Човечкото тело тешко го апсорбира кога ќе се внесе во телото. Паладиумовите сили убиваат некои растениа како што е водениот зумбул, но погелемиот број на растенија се отпорни иако тестовите покажуваат дека нивото повисоко од 0,0003%, има влијание на растот на билката. Високите дози на паладиум можно е да се отровни, тетирањата на глодачи наведуваат на помислата дека е карциноген, сепак не постојат цврсти докази дека елеметот е штетен по здравјето на луѓето.[73]

Предупредување[уреди | уреди извор]

Like other platinum-group metals, bulk Pd is quite inert. Although contact dermatitis has been reported, data on the effects are limited. It has been shown that people with an allergic reaction to palladium also react to nickel, making it advisable to avoid the use of dental alloys containing palladium on those so allergic.[29][74][75][76][77]

Some palladium is emitted with the exhaust gases of cars with catalytic converters. Between 4 and 108 ng/km of palladium particulate is released by such cars, while the total uptake from food is estimated to be less than 2 µg per person a day. The second possible source of palladium is dental restoration, from which the uptake of palladium is estimated to be less than 15 µg per person per day. People working with palladium or its compounds might have a considerably greater uptake. For soluble compounds such as palladium chloride, 99% is eliminated from the body within 3 days.[29]

The median lethal dose (LD50) of soluble palladium compounds in mice is 200 mg/kg for oral and 5 mg/kg for intravenous administration.[29]

Поврзано[уреди | уреди извор]

Наводи[уреди | уреди извор]

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Надворешни врски[уреди | уреди извор]

Шаблон:Palladium compounds Шаблон:Jewellery